Food Factoids

Popcorn Panic or a Kernel of Truth?

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Americans love their popcorn-the average person eats about 54 quarts a year…that’s equivalent to 39 bags of microwave popcorn every year! You may have heard that microwave popcorn can be hazardous to your health…and according to some internet sources… it’s an absolute health disaster! Today I will set out the facts and clear up some common misconceptions. You can decide for yourself if you would like to continue eating microwave popcorn.

I thought researching this topic would be pretty quick and easy. Not true. I dug for quite a few days, reading dozens of studies and making multiple phone calls to microwave popcorn manufacturers to get the real facts.

Remember? I read the science so you don’t have to!

Here are the health concerns most commonly unearthed in your typical internet search about the safety of microwave popcorn:

  1. The fake butter flavoring is nasty and dangerous.
  2. The bag is lined with Teflon.
  3. Vapors escaping from the bag are toxic.
  4. The preservatives are dangerous or toxic.
  5. Contains trans-fats.

Fake Butter Flavoring

Well, it turns out the chemical compound in “fake butter,” diacetyl, is really the same naturally occurring chemical in real butter! Organic chemists have identified dactyl as the naturally occurring compound that gives sour cream, cheese, wine and cultured butter their deep characteristic buttery aroma.12 Once isolated, food companies started using it in foods as a flavor enhancer.

The problem with diacetyl does not come with eating it. The problem comes with inhaling it. Diacetyl made the headline news when employees in popcorn manufacturing plants developed a debilitating lung disease (Popcorn Lung) from chronically inhaling the aerosolized diacetyl.34 Indeed, one study concludes that diacetyl can also pose a threat to consumers if they chronically breathe the vapors emanating from the freshly popped bag.5 Due to the bad press, some manufacturers started to use other butter flavorings, but if inhaled, they pose the same risk as diacetyl.6

Currently, the American Lung Association, Food and Drug Administration, and the Center for Disease Control have concluded that the butter flavoring in microwave popcorn does not pose a risk to the consumer. The Environmental Working Group rates diacetyl as the safest of food additives with a score of 1 out of 10.

To avoid inhaling diacetyl, open freshly popped bags away from your face, and if you have an exhaust fan attached to your stove, turn it on and open the bag by the fan. Wait until the popcorn has cooled to enjoy your crunchy buttery snack.

The Bag Is Lined With Teflon

Maybe. Along with microwave popcorn bags, many of the papery containers we use to store food, like takeout food, fast food wrappers, candy wrappers, pizza boxes, and “doggie bags” are lined with a chemical to keep the grease and moisture from seeping through the paper.7 This chemical can break down into a very harmful byproduct known as perfluorooctinoic acid (PFOA), the harmful chemical associated with Teflon.

It is possible to find healthy microwave popcorn.  Quinn brand microwave popcorn uses no coating on the popping bag.  There are only four ingredients; popcorn, sunflower oil, maple sugar and salt.

PFOA is produced as the popcorn bag liner is heated and the PFOA leaches into the popcorn.8 It is also present in the vapors escaping a freshly popped bag. 9,10 One study measured the amount of PFOA that migrated into the popcorn-it was hundreds of times more than would migrate into food from non-stick pans.10 Wow!

PFOA has many deleterious health effects including bioaccumulation, endocrine disruption, birth defects in animals, cancer, neurotoxicity, and immune problems to name a few.

Because it’s so harmful, many microwave popcorn manufacturers have phased out PFOA generating liners and replaced them with other chemicals. The new chemicals (C6) are still in the same chemical family as PFOA, and appear to be less toxic because they break down easily and do not bioaccumulate. As of this writing in 2016, the available database for these compounds is fairly limited.11

Here’s the problem, the consumer can’t tell which microwave popcorn brands use these new “safe” liners. I called ConAgra, the maker of Orville Redenbacher’s and Act II microwave popcorns to find out what they used to line the bag. They phased out the use of PFOA generating liners in 2009 and now use a “perfluorinated polymer coating.” These new liners could prove to be safer, but the jury is definitely still out.

Toxic Vapors

Yes, it is true that vapors escaping a freshly popped bag of microwave popcorn can contain harmful compounds like PFOAs, volatile organic compounds and p-xylene.912

The greatest chemical quantity is emitted when the bag is opened post-popping; more than 80% of the total chemical emissions occur at this time.12 So once again, if you really can’t resist microwave popcorn, open the bag in a well-ventilated area or by an exhaust fan.

The Preservatives Are Hazardous

Maybe, but you need to read the label. The most common preservatives used in microwave popcorn are citric acid (from citrus fruit), ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), propyl gallate and TBHQ (tert-butylhydroquinone). They are added to keep the oil from going rancid during storage. Of course, citric acid and ascorbic acid are safe, but what about TBHQ and propyl gallate? Neither gets a perfectly safe score from the Environmental Working Group, but are allowed in food by the FDA and the European Union.13 A recent study has indicated that propyl gallate is a mild endocrine disruptor at very low concentrations.14 Only buy the brands that use natural preservatives like ascorbic acid and citric acid.

Contains Trans-fats

Maybe. We all know the dangers of trans-fats so I don’t need to list them here. Many brands of microwave popcorn use trans-fats as the cooking oil because they are more shelf-stable. Look on the label; if it says “hydrogenated” or “partially-hydrogenated,” it contains trans-fats. Don’t buy it.


Dr. Gonzo’s Retro Solution

My family pops our own corn on the stove or microwave. Sure, it’s not as convenient, and we have an extra pan to wash, but at least I know my family is exposed to fewer dangerous chemicals and preservatives, no toxic vapors, fewer artificial colors and flavors and more healthy fats. Here are links for a stove method and a microwave method for popping your favorite corn.

Bon appetit!

Hormone Havoc

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This is a first post in a series, which explains how and why it is essential for you try and steer clear of a class of chemicals known as endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs. Over the next few posts, I will discuss typical household products that contain EDCs and suggest safe alternatives.

What are EDCs?

As you probably know, the endocrine system governs all the hormones in our bodies. Hormones regulate nearly every aspect of our daily lives including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, just to name a few.

EDCs are natural or manmade substances, external to the body, that directly alter the function of the endocrine system, and cause negative health effects1. EDCs are a genuine health concern because they can really mess with chemical signaling within cells and wreak havoc with our hormones.

How do EDCs work?

EDCs can disrupt normal hormone activity by:

  • Mimicking our natural hormones like estrogens (the female sex hormone), androgens (the male sex hormone), and thyroid hormones.
  • Binding to cells preventing hormones from doing their job.
  • Interfere or block the way our hormones are made.

Consequences of hormone disruption

Over the past few decades, the consequences of EDCs in our environment have been studied extensively. Scientists now have a really good idea of how powerful and damaging these chemicals can be. Some EDCs are so damaging, that the FDA, EPA and CDC have mandated bans on their use…remember DDT and Agent Orange?

There are so many adverse effects to EDC exposure that the list is too long to print here. However, scientists and doctors belonging to the Endocrine Society recently issued a statement linking everything listed below to EDC exposure2.

  • Hormone-sensitive cancers (testicular, breast, endometrial, thyroid and prostate)3
  • Obesity and cardiovascular disease4, 5
  • Onset of Type 2 Diabetes6
  • Onset of asthma7
  • Female reproduction toxicity8
  • Decline in quality and quantity of male sperm3
  • Deleterious effects on fetal neural development 9
  • Early puberty in girls10

 Have you been exposed to EDCs?

Unfortunately, if you live in any industrialized country, the answer is a resounding “yes.” EDCs are ubiquitous in our surroundings because they are found in the soil, air, and drinking water and in loads of everyday products– including plastic bottles, carpet, electronics, furniture, metal food cans, fragrances, detergents, fabric softeners, flame-retardant clothing, pharmaceuticals, food, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. Wow!

The effects on children are compounded. Why? Because children are not just tiny adults. As a percentage of their body weight, they breathe more air, drink more water, and eat more food than adults. This is because their organs are undergoing rapid change and development. To top it off, we unwittingly expose them to personal care products, toys, and clothing that contain EDCs. Research shows that EDCs may pose the greatest risk during prenatal and early postnatal development when organ and neural systems are forming.11

Don’t these products have to be safe to be on the market?

No. The majority of the more than 2,000 chemicals that come onto the market every year do not go through even the simplest tests to determine toxicity. Even when some tests are carried out, most do not assess whether a chemical has endocrine disrupting properties.12

Further, manufacturers don’t have to list all the ingredients on their labels because they are considered proprietary, or “trade secrets.” It is practically impossible for a consumer to actually know what is in a product.

You’re freakin’ me out…what should I do?

Over the next few weeks, I’ll be discussing easy ways for you to limit exposure to EDCs. Fortunately, there are a bunch of things you can do to get started right away13.

  • Buy organic foods when possible. Refer to my post Biggest Bang for your Organic Produce Buck.
  • Avoid drinking water from disposable plastic water bottles.
  • Get a water filter that will remove pesticides, lead and heavy metals. Click here for recommendations.
  • Eat fewer animal products. EDCs can accumulate in milk and animal tissues.
  • Don’t store food in plastic containers. Use glass instead.
  • Avoid personal care products that list “fragrance” in the ingredients. More about this biggie in a later post.
  • Get a HEPA filter and HEPA bag for your vacuum cleaner to cut down on toxic EDC laden dust generated by furniture, carpet and electronics.
  • Minimize use of canned foods and don’t buy infant formula in cans. The can liner contains EDCs.
  • Skip the non-stick pans unless they are “green” non-stick pans.

Stay tuned over the next few weeks for more detailed descriptions about which products to avoid and which products and brands are safe.

See you next time!

Healthy and Delicious Turkey Made Easy

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It is the week before Thanksgiving and I thought I’d write a bit about turkeys. I also want to let you in on a little holiday gem I’ve discovered that delivers a healthy and time-saving Thanksgiving meal!

I know you love your family and want the best for them, but is it really worth buying a fancy schmancy heirloom, free-range, sustainable, natural, organic bird?

Let’s start with “conventionally raised” turkeys. According to the Environmental Working Group, many conventionally raised turkeys are:

  • Bred for abnormally large, white breast meat
  • Raised in crowded conditions
  • Likely treated with antibiotics while being raised
  • May be injected with saline/brine, oils, flavors or preservatives at the packing plant

Let’s look at these one at a time.

"Broad-breasted White" tom turkey. Photo provided by Lyn Magedson.
“Broad-breasted White” tom turkey. Photo provided by Lyn Magedson.

First point. Why is an abnormally large breast on a turkey a problem? Americans love their white meat, and because of this, growers phased out traditional turkeys in the 1950s. Turkey growers could make more money raising the “Broad-breasted White” bird, which grows bigger and faster than the traditional bird.

Over the decades, these birds have been selectively bred and a curious problem has resulted…the breasts are now so large, that male birds (toms) are not able to mate with the females (hens) the way Mother Nature intended! The enormous male breasts actually prohibit mating. So how do these turkeys reproduce you may ask? Virtually 100% of all commercially grown turkeys are artificially inseminated. Yes, that’s correct!

It’s bad enough that turkeys can’t reproduce on their own; but the other sad truth is that these birds are not able to fly due to the large breasts.

Young "Broad-breasted White" turkeys in a conventional grow operation. Photo from UDSA image gallery.
Young “Broad-breasted White” turkeys in a conventional grow operation. Photo from UDSA image gallery.

Point two. Because commercially grown turkeys are raised in very crowded conditions and are naturally territorial, they tend to peck at each other. To minimize losses from pecking, farmers “trim” the beaks of the baby chicks with a heated blade or infrared beam. This is done without the use of an anesthetic. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals condemns both practices.

Point three. As you probably know, the overuse of antibiotics results in the selective breeding of “superbugs’ that are resistant to antibiotics and are a real and growing threat to all of us. The USDA allows certain antibiotics, which have growth-promoting qualities, to be given in low doses for extended periods of time in poultry feed. Before the turkeys go to market, the birds are taken off of the antibiotic feed so that no antibiotic residue remains in the tissues.

Keeping the antibiotic out of the meat does NOTHING to prevent the problem of superbugs in our environment! This is a serious threat to society in my book.

Point four. Many conventionally grown and processed turkeys are brined or injected with salts to ensure a moist bird and act as a natural preservative. I have no problem with that.

What I don’t like, are the artificial flavors and colors, and also, I don’t like the preservatives. According to the UDSA, most of the synthetic preservatives are safe in the amounts found in individual food products. However, the quantities of those preservatives add up over your lifetime and there are no long-term studies on the cumulative effects of preservatives in our food.

For an interesting graphic on decoding what turkey packaging labels mean, download the EWG’s Let’s Talk Turkey: How to decode labels to choose a better Thanksgiving bird.


My personal alternative to a conventionally raised turkey has been to opt for an organic bird.

I like this option for three reasons:

  • Birds are fed vegetarian non-GMO diet (not enough research on GMOs and they are unregulated)
  • No antibiotics ever (prevents antibiotic resistant bacteria)
  • Granted outdoor access to fresh air, grass and bugs (humane husbandry)

Believe it or not, Whole Foods has good deals on organic birds and they are raised in humane conditions. Click here for a great video on Whole Foods practices regarding the 5-Step Animal Welfare Rating. It will make you feel good!

Now for the little gem promised earlier. Four years ago, I discovered that Whole Foods sells an entire, fully prepared Thanksgiving meal for 8, with a Diestel organic turkey and pumpkin pie, for $149.99. I did the math, and there is no way I can buy the all ingredients to feed that many mouths for the same price. Never mind that it is PREPARED for me!

I just place my order a few weeks ahead and concentrate on baking a few family favorites, like pecan fig pie and GF desserts for relatives, and pop them in the freezer. On Thanksgiving Day, I actually get to have a good conversation and enjoy my guests.

While doing the research for this post, I decided to call up Diestel Farms to find out more about their organic turkeys included in the meal. The lady was very friendly and answered all my strange questions about her turkeys.

Her answers were basically what the Whole food website says… that the birds are not fed antibiotics ever and are allowed extra time to grow so that they are more tender and juicy. I don’t know if the “tender and juicy” part is is propaganda, but that’s what she said. The turkeys in the Whole Foods organic meal are the Broad-breasted Whites mentioned above, and are indeed artificially inseminated. Knowing this, I might opt for the organic heirloom turkey next year!

Below is the Whole Foods “Traditional Holiday Menu for 8 with Organic Turkey:”

Screen Shot 2015-11-17 at 9.55.09 AM

  • Fully Cooked Organic Diestel Turkey (10 to 12 pounds)
  • Fresh Green Beans with Shallots & Herbs (1 1/2 pounds)
  • Savory Herb Stuffing (4 pounds)
  • Mashed Potatoes (4 pounds)
  • Turkey Gravy (1 quart)
  • Classic Cranberry Sauce (1 pint)
  • Dinner Rolls (12 each)
  • Pumpkin Pie (even though not shown in graphic)

I hope this clarifies a few turkey purchasing facts and leads to an easy, healthy and delicious Thanksgiving meal for you.

Bon Appétit!

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Biggest Bang for Your Organic Produce Buck

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It’s old news that we should be feeding our families organic food if possible. Organically grown produce has not been exposed to herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, antibiotics, growth hormones and are not GMOs. This is important because the first three chemicals have been documented as endocrine disruptors.

What are endocrine disruptors? Well, they alter the normal functioning of human hormones and may interfere with the body’s endocrine system (hormone system) and produce adverse developmental, neurological, immune and reproductive effects. Endocrine disruptors may be found in lots of everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides on produce. I’ll give a more in depth explanation of endocrine disruptors and where they lurk in your home in later posts. For now we’ll focus on produce.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that 80% of our pesticide exposure comes from the food we eat, the other 20% comes from our drinking water and pesticides we use around our homes.

I don’t want to take any chances that my kids will be exposed to these nasties, so I have a strategy to help me navigate the produce aisle.

If you’re like I am, you don’t have a gazillion dollars to buy every item on your grocery list in organic form. So, how is a person supposed to know the best way to get the biggest bang for your organic produce buck? Below is my “rule of thumb” to help you decide whether to buy organic:

Buy organic if:

  • The skin is consumed
  • If it is a leafy green
  • If it is a white or yellow potato

To take it a step further, search the plethora of apps devoted to organic foods. One of my favorite “go to” sources for food safety is the Environmental Working Group. You can easily download their app to your phone for handy reference on whether or not to buy organic. Just search the App Store for “EWG Dirty Dozen.”  They also have produced a printable list if you prefer. After a while you won’t even need the list.

Below is a recap of the produce that has the highest levels of chemical residue.  I only buy the Dirty Dozen if they are available in organic form.

Dirty Dozen

  • Apples (including apple juice and cider)
  • Cherry tomatoes
  • Grapes
  • Peppers (hot)
  • Celery
  • Cucumbers
  • Nectarines
  • Peaches
  • Potatoes (white)
  • Spinach
  • Strawberries
  • Peppers (sweet)

Additional items I always buy organic are dairy products, meat, eggs and rice. More about these particular items in a later post.

You don’t always need to buy organic

If you shop at Costco, you’ll be happy to learn that their tomatoes and bell peppers are grown in hothouses to exacting standards that include no herbicides or pesticides. Although they are not “technically” organic, I’m happy to buy them. Read more about Costco tomatoes here.

Below is a list of produce that consistently tests as “cleanest” with respect to chemical residue and so I don’t spend the extra cash on the organic variety.

Clean Fifteen

  • Asparagus
  • Avocado
  • Cantaloupe
  • Corn
  • Eggplant
  • Grapefruit
  • Kiwi
  • Mangoes
  • Mushrooms
  • Onions
  • Papayas
  • Pineapples
  • Sweet peas (frozen)
  • Sweet Potatoes

While I think it’s a good idea to limit pesticide exposure if possible, especially when kids are involved, scientists and health experts overwhelmingly agree that the mere presence of pesticide residues on food does not mean they are harmful. Personally, I prefer to err on the side of caution when it comes to my kid’s developing brains. I mean, how could fewer nasty chemicals be harmful?

What if organic isn’t available?

In many communities in America, organic is simply not available. I know this…I used to live in North Dakota for a decade when my kids were babies, and for many of those years I couldn’t find an organic blueberry to save my life!  If organic produce is not available, by all means buy the conventionally grown varieties and wash them well! Simply washing them with a washcloth or scrub brush goes a long way to removing pesticide residue on the surface of the produce.

This will make you feel better….

The good news is that conventionally grown produce, is regarded as safe by both the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the EPA. The database maintained by the U.S.D.A., shows that 99% of the produce tested fell far below the permissible upper limit  level of pesticides and herbicides. This goes for the baby food tested as well!

If you’d like to see a neat calculator showing the amount of “Dirty Dozen” foods you would have to consume to have detrimental effects, click here. You will feel reassured about our food supply!

I hope this post will help with your decisions about whether to buy organic produce. If you have a favorite app or website about organic food, let me know!

See you next time!


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